PPL Composite-Air Regulation day by day preparation

Day 1 (Agreements, Organisations, Annexures)

Topics you should learn today

Today, you should learn about the basics of air regulations. Understanding of authorised organisations, conventions which made the rules and regulations. articles of rules, documents of regulations etc. Conventions includes Chicago convention, Hague convention, Warsaw, Tokyo convention and Montreal convention. Basics of Indian law is also to be learned today. Learn the number of ICAO annexes and what it refers to. You should expect at least 2 questions from that.

Study Material : Chapter 1

Topic Exam: Agreements, Organisations, Annexures

Day 2 (Repeat first chapters)

Learn the chapter again thoroughly and attempt the same exam today also.

Topic Exam: Agreements, Organisations, Annexures

Day 3 (Air worthiness, aircraft nationality, licenses)

Today learn more about the following topics. 3 to 5 questions can be expected from these topics. You may use ICAO Annex 8, 7 and 1 for detailed understanding.

Airworthiness of Aircraft
– applicability
Annex 7 – Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks
– applicability
Annex 1 – Personnel Licensing
– applicability
– relation between Annex 1 and CARs

Study material : 

  1. Chapter 2 (Aircraft nationality & Registration Marks)


Topic Exam: 

  1. Air worthiness of aircraft (Annex 8)
  2. Aircraft nationality and registration marks (Annex 7)
  3. Pilot, crew and personnel licensing (Annex 1)

Day 4 (Rules of the air)

Use ICAO Annex 2, to learn about the rules of air in general. 1 to 2 questions are asked from this, in exam.

Rules of the Air (Based on Annex 2)
– Annex 2: essential definitions, applicability of the rules of the air, general
rules (except water operations), visual flight flights, instrument flight rules,
signals, interception of civil aircraft, table of cruising levels

Topic Exam: Rules of Air

Day 5 (Air navigation procedures)

Today, you should learn a bit detailed chapter on air navigation procedures. Use Aircraft Operations Doc. 8168, Volume 1 to study.

Procedures for Air Navigation – Aircraft Operations Doc. 8168,
Volume 1
a) Foreword – introduction
b) Definitions and abbreviations (see general statements)
c) Departure procedures – general criteria, standard instrument
departures, omni-directional departures, published information,
simultaneous operations on parallel or near-parallel instrument
runways, area navigation (RNAV) departure procedures based
on VOR/DME, use of FMS/RNAV equipment to follow
conventional departure procedures
d) Approach procedures
– general criteria (except tables)
– approach procedures design : instrument approach areas,
accuracy of fixes (only intersection fix tolerance factors,
other fix tolerance factors, accuracy of facility providing
track, approach area splays, descent gradient)
– arrival and approach segments : general, standard
instrument arrival, initial approach segment (only general),
intermediate approach segment, final approach segment
(except tables), missed approach segment (only general)
– visual manoeuvring (circling) in the vicinity of the
aerodrome: general, the visual manoeuvring (circling) area
(except table), visual manoeuvring (circling) area not
considered for obstacle clearance (except table), minimum

descent altitude/height, visual flight manoeuvre, missed
approach whilst circling.
– Simultaneous ILS operations on parallel or near-parallel
– Area navigation (RNAV) approach procedures based on
– Use of FMS/RNAV equipment to follow conventional nonprecision approach procedures
e) Holding procedures
– in-flight procedures (except table), entry, holding
– obstacle clearance (except table)
f) Altimeter setting procedures (including ICAO Doc. 7030-
Regional Supplementary Procedures) – basic requirements
(except tables), procedures
g) Secondary surveillance radar transponder operating procedures
(including ICAO Doc. 7030 – Regional Supplementary
– operation of transponders
– operation of ACAS equipment
– phraseology

Topic Exam: Procedures for Air Navigation

Day 6 (Air traffic services)

Today you should learn about Air traffic services. Use Annex 11 and Doc 4444 for better understanding.

Air Traffic Services (based on Annex 11 and Doc. 4444)
a) Air Traffic Services – Annex 11 : Definitions (see general
b) General
– objectives of ATS, divisions of ATS, designation of the
portions of the airspace and controlled aerodromes where
ATS will be provided, classification of airspaces (appendix 4
of Annex 11), required navigation performance (RNP),
establishment and designation of the units providing ATS,
specifications for flight information regions, control areas and
control zones, minimum flight altitudes, priority in the event
of an aircraft in emergency, in-flight contingencies, time in
c) Air Traffic Control
– application
– provision of air traffic control service, operations of air traffic
control service, separation minima, contents of clearances,
co-ordination of clearances
d) Flight Information Service
– application
– scope of flight information service
e) Alerting Service: application, notification of rescue co-ordination
centres (only INCERFA, ALERFA, DETRESFA), information to
aircraft operating in the vicinity of an aircraft in a state of
f) Principles governing the identification of RNP types and the
identification of ATS routes other than standard departure and
arrival routes (Appendix 1)
g) Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services (ICAO Doc. 4444 –
RAC/501/11 and ICAO Doc. 7030 – Regional Supplementary
– definitions (See general statements)
– relationship to other document
h) General provisions
– general air traffic services operating practices: submission of
a flight plan, clearances and information, control of air traffic
flow, altimeter setting procedures, indication of heavy wake
turbulence category, position reporting, air traffic incident
report, procedures in regard to aircraft equipped with
airborne collision avoidance systems (ACAS)
– Appendix 1

Topic Exam: Air Traffic Services

Day 7 (Area control services)

This is also based on Annex 11. Learn thoroughly and write exam based on your understanding.

Area Control Service
– general provisions for the separation of control traffic
– vertical separation : vertical separation application, vertical
separation minimum, minimum cruising level, assignment of
cruising level, vertical separation during ascent or descent
– horizontal separation: lateral separation application, lateral
separation application, longitudinal separation application
– reduction in separation minima
– air traffic control clearances: contents, description of air
traffic control clearances, clearance to fly maintaining own
separations while in visual meteorological conditions,
essential traffic information, clearance of a requested
change in flight plan
– emergency and communication failure: emergency
procedures (only general priority, emergency descent, action
by pilot-in-command), air-ground communication failure (only
concerning the actions by pilot-in-command), interception of
civil aircraft

Topic Exam: Area control services

Day 8 (Approach control services)

This is also based on Annex 11. Learn the following sub topics. No separate exam is given for this small topic.

Approach Control Service
– departing aircraft: general procedures for departing aircraft,
clearances for departing aircraft to climb maintaining own
separation while in visual meteorological conditions,
information for departing aircraft
– arriving aircraft: general procedures for arriving aircraft,
clearance to descend subject to maintaining own separation
in visual meteorological conditions, visual approach,
instrument approach, holding, approach sequence, expected
approach time, information for arriving aircraft

Day 9 (Aerodrome Control Service)

Aerodrome Control Service
– functions of aerodrome control towers: general, alerting
service provided by aerodrome control towers, suspension of
VFR operations by aerodrome control towers
– traffic and taxi circuits: selection of runway-in-use
– information to aircraft by aerodrome control towers:
information related to the operation of the aircraft,
information on aerodrome conditions
– control of aerodrome traffic: order of priority for arriving and
departing aircraft, control of departing and arriving aircraft,
wake turbulence categorization of aircraft and increased
longitudinal separation minima, authorization of special VFR

Topic Exam: Aerodrome control services

Day 10 (Surveillance, information services and Facilitation)

l) Flight Information Service and Altering Service
– Flight information service
– Alerting service
m) Use of radar in Air Traffic Services
– general provisions: limitations in the use of radar,
identification procedures (only establishment of radar
identity), position information, radar vectoring
– use of radar

Aeronautical Information Service (based on Annex 15 and AIP, India)
– essential definitions
– applicability

Topic Exam: Surveillance, information services and Facilitation 

We are now half way towards completion of Air regulations. You should write all the above topic-wise exams again today for a quick recap. 

Day 11 (Aerodrome Lights and markings)

Aerodromes (Based on Annex 14, Vol. 1 & 2)
a) Annex 14
– definitions
– aerodrome data
– conditions of the movement area and related facilities
b) Visual aids for navigation
– indicators and signaling devices
– markings
– lights
– signs
– markers
c) Visual aids for denoting obstacles
– marking of objects
– lighting of objects
d) Visual aids for denoting restricted use of areas
e) Emergency and other services
– Rescue and fire fighting
– Apron management services
– Ground servicing of aircraft
f) Attachment A to Annex 14
– calculation of declared distances
– radio altimeter operating areas
– approach lighting systems

Topic Exam: Aerodrome Lights and markings

Day 12 (Facilitation, search & rescue, operating procedures)

Facilitation (based on Annex 9)
– definitions
– entry and departure of aircraft – description, purpose and use of aircraft
documents general declaration
– entry and departure of persons and their baggage – entry requirement and
procedures for crew and other operator’s personnel

Search and Rescue (based on Annex 12)
a) Annex 12 – definitions
b) Organization
c) Operating procedures
– procedures for pilots-in-command at the scene of an accident
– procedures for pilot-in-command intercepting a distress
– search and rescue signals
d) Search and Rescue Signals
– signals with surface craft
– ground/air visual signal code
– air/ground signals

Topic Exam: Surveillance, information services and Facilitation
Search and Rescue
Operation procedures
Special Operational Procedures and Hazards


Day 13 (Security, accident investigation)

Security (based on Annex 17)
a) Annex 17 – General – aims and objectives
1.13 Aircraft Accident Investigation (based on Annex 13)
a) Annex 13 – definitions, applicability

Topic Exam

  1. Security, unlawful interference, hijacking (based on Annex 17)
  2. Aircraft accident & incident investigation (based on Annex 13)

Day 14 (Human performance & limitations)

Human Performance & Limitations
2.1 Human Factors : Basic Concepts
a) Human Factors in aviation
– competence and limitations
– becoming a competent pilot – the traditional approach towards
‘proficiency’, the human factors approach towards
b) Flight Safety concepts
2.2 Basic Aviation Physiology and Health Maintenance
a) Basics of flight physiology
– the atmosphere : composition, gas laws, oxygen requirements
of tissues
– Respiratory and circulatory systems: pressurization,
decompression, rapid decompression, entrapped gases,
barotraumas, counter measures, hypoxia, symptoms, time of
useful consciousness, hyperventilation, accelerations
– High altitude environment: ozone, radiation, humidity
b) Man and Environment the sensory system
– integration of sensory inputs : spatial disorientation, illusions,
approach and landing problems
c) Health and Hygiene
– personal hygiene
– common minor ailments: cold, influenza, gastro-intestinal
– problem areas for pilots : hearing loss, flight related hazards
to hearing, defective vision, hypotension, hypertension,
coronary disease, obesity, nutrition hygiene, tropical climates
– epidemic diseases
– intoxication: tobacco, alcohol, drugs and self-medication,
various toxic materials
– incapacitation: symptoms and causes, recognition, operating
coping procedures

Topic Exam: Human Performance & Limitations

Day 15 (Human performance revise)


Topic Exam: Human Performance & Limitations

Day 16 (Indian aviation law)

National Law – National Law and differences to relevant ICAO
Annexes and CARs.
Indian aircraft act 1934-section 1,2,8,10,11A,11B, 17&18(3/9)
Aircraft Rule 1937- Rule No. 1-19,21-29A.30,33,37A,38-
Schedule I, II, VI, & XI
AIRCRAFT RULES 1954 (Public Health Rules)
AIRCRAFT RULES 2003 (Carriage of Dangerous Goods)

Topic Exam: Indian National law for aviation

Day 17 (Communications)

General Operating Procedures
– Transmission of letters
– Transmission of numbers (including level information)
– Transmission of time
– Transmission of technique
– Standard words and phrases (relevant RTF phraseology
– Radiotelephony call signs for aeronautical stations including
use of abbreviated call signs
– Radiotelephone call signs for aircraft including use of
abbreviated call signs
– Transfer of communication
– Test procedures including readability scale; establishment of
RTF communications
– Read back and acknowledgement requirements
– Radar procedural phraseology
– Level changes and reports categories of messages
c) Action required to be taken in case of communication failure

Topic Exam: No exam today. Learn thoroughly the topic. A collective exam will be conducted tomorrow.


Day 18 (communications contd.)

Distress and Urgency Procedures
– PAN medical
– Distress (definition – frequencies – watch of distress
frequencies – distress signal – distress message)
– Urgency (definition – frequencies – urgency signal – urgency
e) Relevant Weather Information Terms (IFR)
– Aerodrome weather
– Weather broadcast
f) General Principles of VHF propagation and allocation of
g) Morse Code

Topic Exam : Communications

Day 19

We have successfully completed learning the full syllabus by now. Anyway, it is time to reviise each chapter today by attempting chapterwise exams.

All topic-wise exams

Day 20

If you have successfully finished all chapterwise exams scoring more than 90%, it is time to appear for full version exam. Your aim should be scoring 90+ in these exams. Attempt at least 20 times, scoring 90+ in a minimum of 10 exams to ensure a bright pass in the real exam.

Full version air regulations exam

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